Below you will find existing research about inter-municipal cooperation in Canada. We have included both academic research as well as government documents and think tank reports. This list is always evolving, so please send us any suggestions for documents to include.


Provincial Governments


British Columbia Ministry of Community Services. 2006. “A Primer on Regional Districts in British Columbia.”


Government of Nova Scotia. 2015. “Intermunicipal Agreement: Best Practices Guide.” In Local Government Resource Handbook.


Government of Saskatchewan. 2013. “Inter-Municipal Business Licensing Reference Guide.”


Le Ministère des Affaires Municipales et de l’Occupation du Territoire. 2016. “Guide Pour l’élaboration Des Ententes Intermunicipales.” Gouvernement du Québec.


Smeltzer, Don. 2010. “Prince Edward Island Municipal Government: Cooperation and Partnership Discussion Document.” Federation of Prince Edward Island Municipalities.


Union of Nova Scotia Municipalities, and Service Nova Scotia and Municipal Relations. 2002. “Handbook on Inter-Municipal Partnership and Co-Operation for Municipal Government.”


Municipal Associations


Acton Consulting Ltd. 2008. “Equitable Economics: Inter-Municipal Financial Partnerships.” Discussion Paper. Alberta Association of Municipal Districts and Counties.


G. Pitman Consulting Inc. 2005. “Inter-Municipal Agreement Review.” Alberta Association of Municipal Districts and Counties.


HJ Linnen Associates. 2015. “Inter-Municipal Collaboration in Recreation.” Saskatchewan Parks and Recreation Association.


“Intermunicipal Cooperation | AUMA.Ca.” Association of Urban Municipalities of Alberta.


KPMG. 2013. “Sharing Municipal Services in Ontario: Case Studies and Implications for Ontario Municipalities.” For the Municipal Finance Officers’ Association of Ontario.


Municipal Capacity Development Program. 2010. “A Guide to Municipal Cooperation: Succeeding in Regional Partnerships.”


Municipal Capacity Development Program. “Inter-Municipal Agreements: Municipal Capacity Development Program.” Municipal Capacity Develoment Program.


“Shared Services in Ontario’s Local Public Sector: Localizing Accountability.” 2013. Municipal Finance Officers’ Association of Ontario.


The Federation of Canadian Municipalities. 2011. “The First Nations–Municipal Community Infrastructure Partnership Program (CIPP) Service Agreement Toolkit.”


Municipal Government Webpages


City of Kelowna. 2016. “Inter-Municipal Service Agreements.”


Other Bodies or Organizations


O’Brien, Allan. 1993. “Municipal Consolidation in Canada and Its Alternatives.” Toronto: ICURR Publications.


“Report on Municipal Rescaling & Regional Cooperation.” 2011. Prepared for executive directors of municipal associations & provincial/territorial deputy ministers responsible for local government.


Slack, Enid, and Ian Wight. 1997. “Inter-Municipal Co-Operation: Sharing of Expenditures and Revenues.” Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research. .


Spicer, Zachary. 2014. “Linking Regions, Linking Functions.” IMFG Perspectives Papers. Institute on Municipal Finance & Governance, University of Toronto. .


Spicer, Zachary. 2015. “Cooperation and Capacity: Inter-Municipal Agreements in Canada.” 19. IMFG Papers on Municipal Finance and Governance. Institute on Municipal Finance & Governance, University of Toronto.


Spicer, Zachary, and Found, Adam. 2016. “Thinking Regionally: How to Improve Service Delivery in Canada’s Cities.” Commentary 458. C.D. Howe Institute.